Գլխավոր էջ The North American Review Lectures on Modern History, Delivered in Oxford, 1859-61by Goldwin Smith;Rational Religion, and the...
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University of Northern Iowa Lectures on Modern History, Delivered in Oxford, 1859-61 by Goldwin Smith; Rational Religion, and the Rationalistic Objections of the Bampton Lectures for 1858 by Goldwin Smith; Irish History and Irish Character by Goldwin Smith; The Empire. A Series of Letters Published in "The Daily News," 1862, 1863 by Goldwin Smith; Does the Bible Sanction American Slavery? by Goldwin Smith; A Letter to a Whig Member of the Southern I ... The North American Review, Vol. 99, No. 205 (Oct., 1864), pp. 523-539 Published by: University of Northern Iowa Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25100577 . Accessed: 17/05/2014 21:49 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. . University of Northern Iowa is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The North American Review. http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 1864.] Goldwin Smith. 523 onModern History, in Ox delivered Lectures VII. ?1. M. Professor Goldwin 1859-61. A., Smith, Kegius By ford, of Oxford. in the University Oxford and of Modern History : J. H. and Jas. Parker. 1861. 8vo. London and the Rationalistic 2. Rational Religion, of the Objections Goldwin Smith. 1858. Oxford: Bampton Lectures for By 8vo. 1861. J. L. Wheeler. Smith. and Irish Character. 3. Irish History By Goldwin 1861. Post H. Jas. Parker. J. and London: and Oxford Art. 8vo. in u The A Series 4. The Empire. published of Letters Smith. Oxford 1862, 1863. By Goldwin Daily; News," 1863. Post and London : John Henry and James Parker. 8vo. sanction American the Bible 5. Does Slavery ? By Goldwin John Henry and James Par Oxford and London: Smith. Mass.: 8vo. Post ker. 1863. Cambridge, [Reprinted, Sever and Francis. 1863.] to a Whig Member 6. A Letter of the Southern Independence Smith. Boston: and Ticknor Goldwin Association. By 12mo. 1864. Fields. [Author's edition.] the Abolition of Tests in the University 7. A Plea for of Ox and Oxford: Wheeler Smith. Goldwin Day. By ford. 1864. Post 8vo. Our existing civil war is separating us as a nation, not only The Revo from our own past, but also from the Old World. from lution, the war of 1812, though dividing us politically And this was natural, left us still provincials. for England, it is not to be created is not the growth of a night; nationality of independence ; it is not of regular pro by a declaration or the product of calculable Even to define it forces. in be It is difficult. may said, general, to be the sum precisely the of historical, political, and moral, differences, geographical, ? of which separate a people as a community from every other, those differences which modify the character of each individual, in the traits of national and the results of which are combined of its existence is developed The consciousness character. cedure, This content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 624 Goldwin Smith. [Oct. ? the slowly, and it is long before the sentiment of nationality true foundation of patriotism?gains force over the hearts and of a people. But this sentiment, when it has once convictions taken root, is one of the most powerful of those by which hu man conduct is affected. It is a sentiment of the highest order, into a re lifting men out of narrow and selfish individualism gion where they behold their duties as members one of another, and as partakers of the general life of humanity, ? the inheri tors of the past, the trustees of the future. It is capable, indeed, of being perverted to low ends ; its force may be reduced to the mean uses of mere vulgar politics; it may be narrowed into a or and insolent bigoted pride, degraded to the level of partisan noblest it is brought into close connec but in its exercise ; ship tion with religion, inspiring men to behold in the nation, not a mere conglomeration of individuals, with separate and clashing but a marvellous, intricate organization, interests, testifying and providence to the wisdom of Him who maketh and who ruleth the people. shows more clearly how favorable were the elements Nothing our of social and political condition, how fortunate have been our circumstances, and how vigorous has been our growth, than that in less than a century we have become from colonies a nation, and have changed from Englishmen to Americans. at first the the rebellion of slaveholders And though might an seem to it has the furnished indication contrary, really sight the most substantial proof, not only of the existence of a true ? in the people of the United and this States, but nationality has been one of the most important results of the war ? of the existence among them of a sentiment of nationality capable of of the most supplying a permanent motive for the performance and difficult patriotic duties. The attack upon the wearisome life of the nation has been the means its inde of exhibiting structible vitality and astonishing vigor. The chief external form in which nationality embodies itself is that of institutions; and the fact is not to be denied, that our and social institutions themselves proving capable political strain of rebellion, will have proved of bearing this enormous themselves the strongest the world has known, as they long since proved themselves the best fitted to secure and to pro mote independence, justice, prosperity, and happiness. This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Goldwin 1864.] Smith. 525 as they are on the principle of respect for the rights Founded of man, however much that principle may have been violated in practice, they are the only institutions of government under in the community which, theoretically at least, every individual is assured of the possession and enjoyment of all natural rights, of all the dignities and privileges of manhood; while, as a are and the the of consequence government this, community There assured of the support and respect of every individual. is under them no division of interest between classes, between and those that obey the laws. those that make and administer and dangers inherent to our There are, it is true, difficulties success as has been mar thus far Its other. to every system success its of but the continuance vellous, depends on con our system to fail to-morrow, Were tinually new conditions. it would be from no inherent fault, but from some external cause. and remediable The final problem of popular govern is constantly of popular in other ment, words, sovereignty, new It for is a double forms solution. itself under presenting ? the to daw than make stronger passionate will of problem, and to secure to the permanent and intelligent the multitude, in law,?to will of the people its due expression guard against and it is the despotism of the many, of the few, or of one, ? this double problem which we are continually out, working to come will not cease to be required and which generations to work out for themselves. But we have already proved that the problem is capable of satisfactory solution by each genera tion, and that our system is essentially one of stability and regularity. such a system of politics and govern The contrast between as this, and those which exist as inheritances ment from the is almost complete. The political institutions past in Europe, of Europe are founded not on the broad, general principles of right, rest finally on no moral basis, but are established on the notion of privilege ; in other words, on the fallacy that a man or a class may justly, whether by right of birth or of force, other men have no share. possess political rights in which institutions These do not protect and promote consequently the interests of all alike, but only of a comparatively few indi viduals at the expense of the great multitude of the people. This content downloaded from 184.108.40.206 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 526 Goldwin Smith. [Oct. No nation in Europe presents the aspect of a true community. One form or another of government and of institutions may be fitted for one or another nation, but no form of government can be regarded as good or as permanent and no institutions which establish unjust distinctions among men in those matters in which by nature they have equal rights. There is then an irrepressible conflict between the Old World and the New. is democratic. America Europe is still feudal. The war is emphasizing the In maintaining this distinction. for the integrity of or, in other words, in contending Union, in which the distinctive the institutions of our na principles are we have taken form, tionality destroying slavery, an insti to them in its nature, which, having been tution contradictory system, was becoming irreconcilable engrafted on our political its ruin. in with its permanence and was threatening And we are worst the form class of destroying slavery destroying and a base and spurious counterfeit of aristocracy. privilege, In this contest we cannot fail to have our principles confirmed, and our confidence in our free democratic system quickened and made stronger. A man feels the worth of that for which he voluntarily of that to suffers, and learns the real meaning or to is to which he himself forced maintain expose protect death. We shall come out of this war with faith justly deep of justice and liberty on which our in ened in the principles rest. We shall have new reason for trust in the stitutions instincts and intentions of an instructed and intelli political We have shall by given proof of the possession gent people. a free popular government of those very qualities which it has been commonly though erroneously supposed such a govern ment was incapable of exhibiting. or of Ours is indeed no ideally perfect frame of government But it is founded on ideal principles, capable of prac society. of improve tical application, and thus it affords opportunities to the progress and elevation of the thoughts ment according ideas The moral nature of its fundamental and desires of men. us it capable of indefinite development. in believing justifies Not yet are our people educated up to the great argument of their own principles reach ; never will humanity, however educated, the fulness of justice, of liberty, of love. But as our people be This content downloaded from 220.127.116.11 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Goldwin Smith. 527 1864.] come more enlightened and more virtuous, they will find their of institutions capable adaptation to the new demands of their Politics will be brought naturally into improved moral sense. and the of closer dependence the upon morals, identity princi eternal prin democracy with the abstract, ples of American and completely ciples of right will be more clearly recognized established. of the English On the other hand, the principles political of system not being those of abstract justice, the arrangements society resulting from the practical application of these princi In striking opposition to our American ples are not just. our to of and the theory, tendency political action, the result of political power in England of the unequal distribution is to to and social increase promote justice popular liberty only so far as is consistent with the preservation of the privileges of the classes. governing a difference the two countries necessarily separates is but it that obvious the is increasing, not widely; separation of political and social theory only by the widening* divergence and practice, but also by a growing difference in the modes of The mental thought and forms of opinion. temper, the spir itual condition, of the two peoples are becoming more and more distinct. This difference is radical. It is evident in the insatiable curiosity with which the two nations regard each in and the other, increasing difficulty which each finds in com seem no longer to be brothers, ? the other. We prehending hardly of the same stock. We are strangely near, still more Such strangely apart. This separation, so far as it is the result of absolute differ ence of national character and of institutions from resulting matter not is are the complements of regret. Nations of it, secure the full Their diversities each other. of development in its present stage at least, Civilization, humanity. depends on its for the combined results of these differ progress greatly " ences. Nations redeem each other. They do for each other nationally very much what men of different characters do for in the intercourse each other morally of life." But if the or be produced aggravated separation by other circumstances than the real differences of national it be character,?if This content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 528 Goldwin Smith. [Oct. by unfair dealing, by jealousy, by selfish diplomacy, ? then indeed it becomes for then the lamentable, by force, bind the nations which should together, in spite of sympathy and it may be destroyed. is weakened, Under differences, ? and it is the neath national diversity lies human similarity, human element in life that is the constant quantity, outval uing all the rest. And though we have no reason for regret that our pres our national ent war, by developing character, has widened the separation between us and England, there is reason for the deepest regret that circumstances arising out of the war have greatly diminished the sympathy between the two coun a them in have almost hostile attitude to each other, tries, put and have rendered doubtful what ought never to be called the continuance of peace between in doubt, ? them. This not alone to England and condition of feeling is a misfortune It has sprung mainly but to the world. from the America, inevitable aristocracy must jealousy with which a declining a like ours, exhibiting democratic for the community regard first time its tremendous This of the strength. gov jealousy of an erning class has been heightened by the misconceptions astonishing ignorance, by the perversions of malice, and by the fact that the only class in England which has felt and exhib ited sympathy with us in our present trials is that of the in the sentiments upon whose democratic telligent workingmen, The suspicion and alarm. oligarchy looks with not unnatural masses in England and unenfranchised regard the indigent with of their country constitution apathy, and the more active Our failure would of them with sullen disaffection. minded as democratic of failure the the Our success be cited system. will be shared by the people all the world over. And thus the widened and those who live the wealthy, great body of the aristocracy, on the established order of things, true to the instinct of self to the cause of liberty to which interest, have proved untrue was in better days pledged, and have given the benefit England of subterfuge, evasion, and sympathy to those rebels who would and freedom, but the best destroy, not only our nationality the in the Old and World. It is the of poor oppressed hopes as directed, not by her people, but by the course of England This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Goldwin 1864.] Smith. 529 her oligarchy, that has parted us from her, that has widened the ocean between us, that has cut away one after another of those tenderest ties which no force and no conscious effort can bind again. this the ruling classes in England But in effecting have done greater than to us. harm to themselves For, so far as their interests are those of the whole people of England, we are the only nation on the face of the globe which can be their real support and hearty ally. So far as the English rulers mean and law, liberty, justice, equal rights, so far they are our friends and we theirs by nature. But though the aristocracy in England, the clergy of the men the Established of and the letters, Church, wealthy middle class generally, have been against us during this war, yet a few men have been found in each class to recognize that we are fighting the battles of the English people, and that patriotism, no less than reverence for liberty and for law, respect for the right, and faith in progress, called upon them to take part with their sympathy, but their most us, and to give us not merely strenuous efforts and most faithful service. They have had a hard duty to perform. They have shown, in a period of self ish and cynical reaction, that the qualities which have made are not great England wholly extinct, and, however large may be the debt of gratitude owes to them, Eng which America land owes to them still more, for striving, and not unsuccess and the danger to fully, to save her from the degradation which her evil counsellors and our ill-wishers would have her. brought the supporters of the cause of the Free States in Among the historical and moral ele those who understand England, ments of the rebellion and the true nature of our government are very few. The most ardent sympathy is frequently united with great misconceptions of facts, or with great ignorance " of them. about " independence Lord Russell's and epigram " " was more the statement far false of clever empire ignorance, than the invention of wilful malice. should How, indeed, so intricate, especially truth be reached concerning matters it is the object of many individuals when both at the North and in England to obscure the truth both of history and of yol. xcix. ? no. 205. 34 This content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 530 Goldwin Smith. [Oct. the present time ? A wrong cause must be supported by false even good and the false argument may persuade arguments, men that the wrong cause is right. Old lies have helped the new. and the saying has been It has been said in England, was But the that the newspaper press believed, independent. truth is, that the Times, the influence of which upon pub is as devoid of lic impressions is hardly to be exaggerated, or the New York as the Paris Moniteur real independence in the same way, but it is not the Herald. It is not dependent less the organ of prepossession and of prejudice. At the very have been of facts head-quarters perverted, news intelligence true statements has been garbled, fables have been invented, have been denied and false ones affirmed, till it is more strange that there should be any among the English who take part with us than that there should be so few. If the estrangement between the two nations should widen until war shall ensue, the historian will trace one of its most important and most sources falsehoods in the daily repeated malignant embittering of that great newspaper which had established a firm despotism over the minds of the vast unthinking mass of the upper classes of English society. in England who have most the men thoroughly Among understand the real nature of the studied and most clearly is Mr. Goldwin rebellion Smith, Regius Professor of Modern at Oxford. And no man has shown a keener appre History or of our institutions, ciation of the distinctive characteristics a more genuine and hearty sympathy in our endeavors to pro as the means and instru those institutions, tect and maintain and ment freedom justice may be secured, per by which with great vigor of style, Writing petuated, and extended. which corresponds well to the vigor of his thought, and sure to be listened to not merely on account of the authority of his but also on account of the pith and force of his position, arguments, he has been one of the most constant and effective cause and of the course of the defenders of the Northern In frequent letters to the press, especially to administration. the Daily News, he has exposed the blunders or the falsehoods the public as to the causes and of the Times, and enlightened conditions of the war. With a talent for controversy This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions perhaps 1864.] Goldwin Smith. 531 in England, he has with sharp unrivalled by any living writer or cut through the still moral with indignation, irony, sharper slave-dealers and their friends, and masks of the Confederate torn off the infamous disguises with which they endeavored He has made to make the worse appear the better cause. clear the fact that the rebellion is one, not against the Ameri can government alone, and against the unity and life of one is an attack upon the very foundations of all but it that nation, a law itself, and that its success rebellion against government, would be the success of false opinions, subversive of the prin of modern characteristic civilization. He has ciples mainly never ceased to urge upon England the adoption of a policy not only worthy of her honor and dignity, but also in accord ance with her most traditions and her hereditary inspiring claims as the guardian of the oppressed, the foster-mother of liberty, and the fearless defender of the right. with the deep interest of a liberal political student Watching course of affairs and the current of public opinion in both the Mr. Smith has brought all the resources of his learn countries, as as the powers of his mind, to his great task. all well If ing, the highest duty of a Professor of History be to apply the les sons of the past to the understanding of the present time, and in the conflict and confusion of contending forces and opinions to discover and set forth the truth, he has well performed it. His well-known essay on the relation of the Bible to Slavery affords an excellent instance of the wise use of historical studies. But the very question of the title, " Does the Bible sanction American Slavery ?" is in itself a curious evidence of the extraordinary corruption of opinion wrought by slavery the last few That an eminent Professor of years. during at it Oxford find should for the sake of needful, History enlight ening public opinion, to prove by elaborate historic and moral that the existence of slavery among the Jews in the argument time of Moses affords no ground of defence for slavery in the nineteenth century, and that the Christian religion is the nat that such a man should publish such ural enemy of slavery, ? a treatise affords striking evidence of the low condition of moral feeling and of intelligence among the most enlightened and civilized people of the present time. This content downloaded from 184.108.40.206 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 532 Goldwin Smith. [Oct. In this excellent essay, Mr. Smith has vindicated Christianity and that per of its teachings, against that misinterpretation version of its spirit, by which the apologists of slavery have obscured the truth and corrupted religion. He has also found to present a strong argument in favor of that com occasion which, founded upon free labor, is inspired with the munity " idea that the state is a brotherhood, Christian of which all are equally recognized as members." " Letter to aWhig Member Mr. Smith's more recent of the a more is Southern Association" and, as covering popular, the whole ground of the war, a more important production. No abler statement of our cause has appeared on either side It is written with such strength of feeling, of the Atlantic. with such accuracy and such sympathetic with intelligence, and with such clear historic insight, abundance of knowledge, as to excite just surprise as the production of a foreigner, view across the ocean. our and institutions conditions from ing an our affairs is Such a judgment indication of what upon the judgment of posterity upon this great epoch in our history is likely to be. Had Mr. Goldwin Smith, however, never engaged in the dis his works in other fields of cussion of American questions, inquiry have given him so high a place among .the younger in of English men of letters, and he has displayed generation them abilities of so rare and high an order, that American readers and thinkers could not long have remained ignorant or indifferent to his writings. of his reputation one after It is now about four years since he published, a a in then and collected small another volume, separately, brief series of Lectures on Modern History, which established liberal and soundest historical his position as one of the most students in England. Perhaps no more valuable contribution of knowledge, and no more im in this department to thought of the theory and philosophy of history, discussion portant the in England have appeared present period of re during in the topic and controversy it. interest newed concerning " and the one On the Study of History," The two Lectures " of the Doctrine of His On some Supposed Consequences exhibit the leading historical views of Pro torical Progress," This content downloaded from 220.127.116.11 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Goldwin Smith. 533 1864.] fessor Smith, and display the most marked qualities of his in It is one of the peculiarities of Mr. tellect and character. that it shows the qualities Smith's writing, Goldwin of his than those of his in moral character with no less distinctness tellect, and while it excites the respect of the reader, it at the same time wins his sympathy and regard. on the Study of History The first of the Lectures is, in the of the claims of history to be regarded main, an examination as an exact science, and a refutation of the hypothesis of the school, or, in other words, of those who assert that positive is lawrs. The course of history, history governed by necessary not allow us to infer from to Professor does Smith, according it it a law of development, which may be ranked and studied by the inductive among sciences, but, on the contrary, the true of history is the doctrine of the induction from the phenomena the efforts of individuals. of mankind His progress through as man the actions of is made of men, up every and, tory the actions of men are free. knows from his own consciousness, " in history as in individual Human life and society, actions, of the most connections intimate may and do present moral and momentous of kind, but not that necessary sequence " causation on which alone science can be based." Humanity advances by free effort, but is not developed by invariable laws, such as, when discovered, give birth to a new science." This view of history, confirmed as it is not only by what we know of the external world, but also by its accordance with the nature, of man, not only as a physical, but as a spiritual being, and its harmony with our highest of the Divine conceptions nature and the purposes of God in the creation of the world, commends itself alike to common sense and to religious senti ment. It gives us a philosophy of history, though it deprives us of a science. It accounts for and leaves room for the in fluence of the moral nature, and it gives meaning to the two ? the division of nations grand facts in the life of the world, and the succession of ages. This religious theory of history covers all the facts, the physical view of the world covers the physical facts alone. In the second Lecture Mr. Goldwin Smith develops this of with breadth of view, fertility of great philosophy history This content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 534 Goldwin of clearness illustration, Smith. [Oct. and statement, " That the and common, race human in tend some is in a real measure sense to a earnestness. moral is in a noble The conclusion of this Lecture we can quote but the last admirable words. strain of eloquence; that one; result; joint its efforts its that are several not only as individual ? is a doctrine which result, joint agents, our hearts to support, our reason, finds something and which perhaps, us not It unites in sympathy, but in real interest, accept. only readily as with that are to come those the generations after with us, as well us ; it makes a par before each generation, each man, that have gone members taker shall that in the stand may but as contributors in the wealth not reap, come after eye to effort, final and calms us to sow a harvest we it encourages which all; our own hands, of those but by the hands indeed, stimulates selfish and ambition ; it at once represses us that about quenches of our kind; ; it it strengthens and limits, to grasp the passionate craving the fragment, up gives and covers failure present of as of men, states, the melancholy which flows we too are sinking, into which past to come." into with just when great or ap success; in one the ruins social sustains perfection to effort ultimate incidents from all limiting by political fruitfulness ; it fills wasted, parently turns the deaths and Maker, this the gratitude of earning all desires personal regulates truth their of with the desire and of of it vast life; the past, ? seem things The solidity of the foundation upon which the philosophy of Smith is constructed, and history maintained by Mr. Goldwin the truth of its main elements, are confirmed by the fact that u the it rests in great part upon doctrine that the Human is identical the and that with the moral na Divine, Morality ture of man points truly, though remotely, to that of God," ? a doctrine which forms the basis not only of the philosophy of history, but also of rational religion itself. Mr. Smith was led to emphasize and insist the more strongly upon this doctrine, it had recently been ably though because indirectly contro in his Bampton verted by Mr. Mansel, Lectures for 1858, on the Limits of Religious In publishing his two Lec Thought. tures on the Study of History, Mr. Smith appended a postscript the doctrine of the identity of the Divine and Human defending of the Bampton against the arguments Lecturer, Morality by that if logically carried the doctrines would, opposite showing To this postscript Mr. out, lead to the absurdity of atheism. This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Goldwin 1864.] Smith. 535 his doctrine against the Mansel published a reply, vindicating conclusions which had been drawn from it. To this reply Mr. " in the volume entitled Rational Smith answered Religion," which drew from Mr. Mansel a second letter, and with this the The discussion was conducted ended. upon both controversy It was not a dispute in regard to individual sides with ability. the very foundations of religion and opinions, but it regarded the and last phase of the old controversy be morality, presented tween the advocates of reason and those of authority in matters those who have faith in the free thought of religion,?between and of man as the means by which he can attain to intelligible consistent, however incomplete*, notions of the nature and attri to him this of the Divine Being, and those who, denying a the of an in doctrine found upon power, negative philosophy tendencies in The of God. thought opposite comprehensible at and the between the the divergence present time, England two schools of religious philosophy, were distinctly marked by in their respective this controversy between men alike eminent butes to his views spheres. Mr. Mansel met Mr. Smith's objections authorities with an appeal to the consent of ecclesiastical ; an one answer. there be but As to the which could cham appeal pion of the liberal cause, Professor Smith showed that he had cut himself loose from the bonds of ancient error and traditional creeds, while he struck blows of telling effect against those who and scho of metaphysics fight intrenched behind the figments the the furnished full ar with from armed weapons lasticism, and freedom human But the creeds. of mory very vigor with in the power of reason, his confidence which he contended, ? of metaphysical subtleties of the mere his eager impatience ? to him the keen thrusts occasionally exposed disputation, a dialectician, so acute and learned a dispu of so accomplished But the opponents were not unequally tant, as Mr. Mansel. ar if for matched, superior skill in the use of metaphysical was on one the of the force rational conviction side, gument was upon the other. on In the Lecture Doctrine of Historical " Some supposed Consequences of the Mr. Smith shows the har Progress," and the mony of this doctrine with the truths of Christianity, support it derives, not only from the teachings, but also from This content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 536 Goldwin Smith. [Oct. the character of Christ, and exposes some of the crudities and errors of the theories of Comte, and of the other Positivists. The portion of this Lecture to the development devoted of the author's view of the character, and life of Christ teaching, in their relation to the progress of mankind, is a remarkable as indicated in its manly expression of its author's character freedom of thought, its eloquent dignity of tone, its spiritual wisdom. insight, and comprehensive The concluding Lecture in the volume is a very admirable one on " The Foundation of the American The volume Colonies." is out of print in England, but we trust that it may be reprinted in this country, where it would find a large circle of readers. In 1861 Professor Smith published his essay on Irish History It is a brief sketch of the history of Ire and Irish Character. relation the between the history and the character and of land, of the Irish people, from the earliest period to the present time. This difficult and thorny subject is treated with a fairness of a sound common an historic sense, and learning, judgment, a right feeling, that are not surpassed in the works of any of condensation The essay is a model and historian. English It is written in a style exceedingly clearness of statement. illumined attractive from its simplicity and animation, by the the and of Christian moral of flashes pure light indignation It is a book for the statesman as well liberality and charity. as well as in as for the student of history, in the New World half the Irish people have at last the Old; for in America found the just laws, the equal rights, the religious and political them in their own land. freedom, which have been denied has them into happy exile, and driven after calamity Calamity are redressed. of centuries The here at length the wrongs and effect of the sudden influx of a people so long misgoverned, whose progress was arrested at an almost primitive stage, the an so element of of a the of moreover, large effect, mingling race foreign to our own, upon our habits and our institutions, than they have deserve more careful study and consideration Smith's affords means of this treatise Professor and received, for forming correct opinions of the character of a people that a part in the conduct of our political already takes so large life. social, and domestic affairs, and in our industrial, This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Goldwin Smith. 537 1864.] " The volume called " The Empire contains a series of letters " " in in The* 1862 and 1863, treating of News published Daily the relations between England and her various colonies and The first letter was occasioned by the affair of dependencies. the Trent, which revealed the precariousness of the existing between connection Canada and ? England, and the main ar of the volume is that of Colonial Emancipation. In gument Professor Smith's view, the colonies and dependencies of Eng land, with very small exception, are sources, not of strength, but not for the of weakness ; and the present system is maintained, to the of but real diminution her power, of advantage England, for the benefit of a class, and for the gratification of a false pride The question is one of the most important to Eng of empire. land in the whole range of those which relate to her honor, her ; and it is not strange glory, her prestige, and her prosperity that the opinions of Mr. Goldwin Smith are not regarded with favor by the large class who hold the false notion that the glory and power and prosperity of a nation are dependent upon, and synonymous with, the extent of territory over which she en But to those of juster and more holds direct dominion. the true sources of national lightened thought, who apprehend seem or extravagant not Mr. Smith will greatness, unpatriotic in arguing that England would be vastly stronger, both in mate rial power and in moral influence, as the mother of free, self in Canada, in Australia, nations in New Zealand, governing or elsewhere, than as the mistress of colonies which she can neither govern well nor sufficiently protect, of colonies which are an annual charge upon her own resources, and whose in and political and material are all ali^e progress dependence connection with her. impeded by their unnecessary The prevailing characteristic of this, as of Mr. Smith's other its is breadth of view and good common works, philosophic " sense ; all his books illustrate his own maxim, that History is a mere string of facts without moral and without philosophy, is apt to become a dream." He stands in history philosophy the very front ranks of England, and his views lic opinion is likely to He present condition. the intelligent, liberals of enlightened are indications of the course which pub of its take, rather than an exposition writes as one of the small class of the This content downloaded from 184.108.40.206 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 538 Goldwin Smith. [Oct. leaders of thought, and in the definiteness of his opinions on many of the most important subjects of thought it is probable that he stands nearly alone among his own class. He is a lib eral by nature and by conviction, in religion and in politics, and has fairly thought his way out of social and political feudalism, and out of that state Church which is its religious complement. in sympathy with the principles Such a man is naturally and American with better of the institutions, objects hopes, pur of the American He has stud poses, and aspirations people. ied history too deeply and with too clear a mind not to recog state represents, better than any other, nize that the American a true community; it maybe, that it represents, imperfectly but still in increasing measure, ideal of a state the highest the ideal of a have attained, ? to which human conceptions under freedom law, seeking jus self-imposed people enjoying and sharing alike tice in political and social arrangements, The Ameri the benefits and the burdens of the social union. use own words, his at in to can commonwealth least, has, part " solved a ? full the for rights of great problem humanity; a whole people ; a real com on have conferred been citizenship .... institu and American munity has been called into being, that which is the best practical tions have received stamp of ? of a perfectly free people." the loyal attachment excellence, Not yet are the results of this great novelty in history fully de of hope; but even now, in veloped, not yet is the fulfilment beset and all which still await which the calamities all of spite cannot fail to be our state, the hearts of the lovers of mankind with that nation which more than any other bears in the bark of its fortunes the political and the religious hopes of man. Smith is not merely a wise it is because Mr. Goldwin And that he has stood but a true lover of mankind, political student, for us our and us in great contest, fought manfully firmly by our with which the the the falsehood, malignity bigotry, against it is that with Therefore cause has been assailed in England. full confidence he has given us his sympathy and his strength ; and while other men, professed lovers of liberty and of justice, have failed us, he has striven with unwavering fidelity to rouse to quicken of England, her to a sense of the wrongs the better mind and to waken her nobler she was This content downloaded from 220.127.116.11 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions instincts, inflicting on Nathaniel 1864.] Hawthorne. 539 on herself, in recklessly the injury she was inflicting should be indissolu two the nations bonds which the loosing by and in affection. in in connected interest, respect, bly to him who thus serves her, and is not ungrateful America cause of liberty and jus in serving her promotes the universal She She pays to him the tribute of heartiest gratitude. tice. us, and welcomes him, not as a stranger, but as a son. in the grand federation of In that long distant future when, the world, the day of lasting peace shall dawn, the name of as of one who labored to Goldwin Smith shall be remembered speed the coming of that better time. Art. VIII. ? Ticknor The Works and Fields. Hawthorne. of Nathaniel 16 vols. 12mo. Boston: traveller from Boston, Railroad, by the Eastern in less than an hour the old town of Salem, Massa It is chiefly of plain wooden chusetts. houses, composed and has but it has a quaint air of past provincial grandeur, town. The first Amer indeed been an important commercial ican ship for Calcutta and China sailed from this port; and our trade with New Holland and the Salem ships opened But its glory has long since departed, with that South Seas. and of its stately and respectable neighbors, Newburyport There is still, however, a custom-house in Salem, Portsmouth. and chandlers' there are wharves, shops, and a faint show of and an air of marine capacity which no apparent shipping, sea result justifies. It sits upon the shore like an antiquated The reaches captain, grave and silent, in tarpaulin and duck trousers, idly the ocean upon which he will never sail again. watching But this touching aspect of age and lost prosperity merely serves to deepen the peculiar impression of the old city, which is not derived from its former commercial but importance, from other associations. Salem village was a famous place in the Puritan annals. The tragedy of the witchcraft tortures and murders has cast upon it a ghostly from it which spell, This content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Sat, 17 May 2014 21:49:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions