Գլխավոր էջ Hispania Hispanic American Intellectuals Publishing in the Nineteenth-Century United States: From Political...
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Hispanic American Intellectuals Publishing in the Nineteenth-Century United States: From Political Tracts in Support of Independence to Commercial Publishing Ventures Author(s): Nicolás Kanellos Source: Hispania, Vol. 88, No. 4 (Dec., 2005), pp. 687-692 Published by: American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20063172 Accessed: 14-01-2016 23:58 UTC Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/ info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Hispania. http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Thu, 14 Jan 2016 23:58:34 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Intellectuals Publishing Hispanic American in the Nineteenth-Century United States: From Political Tracts in Support of Independence to Commercial Publishing Nicol?s University Ventures Kanellos ofHouston in the United States was mostly of a political The first major creative and non-fiction writing by Hispanics nature and intimately related to the Spanish American at first the books from Spain. While struggles for independence and pamphlets were issued by early American printers in Philadelphia, New York and other cities, Spanish American intellectuals soon founded their own presses and, during the course of the nineteenth century, began issuing all kinds of Abstract: not only as part of defining their national identities but also as non-political, efforts, many of the foundational works of Cuban and Puerto Rican culture wer; e books, Key Words: Cubans, Hispanics in the United States, naturalism, nineteenth commercial issued century, fare. Because in the United publishing, of these States. Puerto Ricans French intervention in Spain in 1807 and Napoleon's instituting of a puppet govern ment over the Peninsula propelled many Hispanic intellectuals to the young American to in order translate into Spanish the ideas of Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, Republic Madison andMonroe, as well as the Constitution, and smuggle their printed books back into their The homelands across the Atlantic and across the Caribbean. On this foundation of publishing political tracts on the presses of early American printers in Philadelphia, in interpreting American liberalism and democracy in order to further independence movements in Spain and Spanish America, Spanish American intellectuals developed their own printing and publishing houses by the early 1820s. They proceeded to issue not only political books and pamphlets, but also thing from creative literature to practical handbooks, textbooks and grammars. After most former colonies south of the United States border had gained their independence, New emerged as a center of Hispanic publishing, especially for Cubans and Puerto Ricans, every of the York whose struggles for independence from Spain lasted the entire century. The presses of Nestor Ponce de Le?n and Enrique Trujillo, among others, became themainstay of publishing and printing news papers and awide variety of books for Cuban and Puerto Rican expatriates. While they developed their printing and publishing enterprises commercially, they also placed their presses at the service of developing a national identity for these Caribbean colonies of Spain?even while operating far from the homeland in an environment often dominated by the newly expansionist intentions of the American Republic. From their New York City presses emerged the works of such foundational writers as F?lix V?rela, Jos? Echeverr?a, Francisco "Pach?n" Mar?n, Lola Rodr?guez de Ti? and, of course, Jos? Mart?. This paper will study how these presses evolved and impacted the course of national identity for Cubans and Puerto Ricans. Book and periodical publication by Hispanics began in three cities of the early American Republic: New Orleans, Philadelphia and New York. Judging from the number of political books published at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the overwhelming motive for the Spaniards, Cubans and other Hispanic American expatriates in theUnited States bearing the cost of printing and distribution of theirwritten matter was their desire to influence the politics in their homelands. "Hispanic American From Political Tracts Intellectuals in Support Kanellos, Nicol?s in the Nineteenth-Century United States: Publishing of Independence to Commercial Publishing Ventures" 88.4 (2005): 687-692 Hispania This content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Thu, 14 Jan 2016 23:58:34 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 688 Hispania 88 December 2005 to be They established the model of the Hispanic exile community producing publications or or their back into homelands distributed other communi among shipped smuggled expatriate ties in theUnited States and abroad. Spanish-speaking political refugees from both Spain and the Spanish American countries have as part of their political culture repeatedly taken up exile in the United States to enjoy its protected freedom of expression, including access to a free press. The raison d'?tre of the exile press has always been the influencing of life and politics in the home land: providing information and opinion about the homeland, changing or solidifying opinion about politics and policy in thepatria, assisting in raising funds to overthrow the current regime, providing the ideological base for that overthrow, but nevertheless maintaining a foreign point of reference. A purely immigrant or an ethnic minority press, as opposed to an exile press, however, ismore oriented to the needs of immigrants and/or citizens in the country of refuge, in this case, the United States. Over time, the exile press eventually may make the transition to an immigrant and/or ethnic minority press as the communities of expatriates become more permanent in the adopted country and/or the return to the homeland is no longer feasible or of particular interest. The first political books printed in exile by Hispanics were written by Spanish citizens who were protesting the installation of a puppet government in Spain by Napoleon Bonaparte. For the most part, these early books of protest were typeset and printed in the shops of early American printers, such as John Mowry, Thomas andWilliam Bradford, Mathew Carey, J. F. Hurtel, and Thomas and George Palmer during the first two decades of the nineteenth century.1 However, by 1822, Hispanic exiles began operating their own presses and publishing houses. One of the first to print his revolutionary tracts on his own press was Vicente Rocafuerte in Philadelphia. By 1825, Carlos Lanuza's press (Lanuza, Mendia & Co.) was operating inNew York, printing and publishing political tracts as well as creative literature by Hispanic authors. In the 1830s, they were joined by the Imprenta Espa?ola of Juan de laGranja and the press of Jos? Desnoues, both inNew York, but itbears mentioning that newspapers, such as El Mensagero, El Reflector and El Mundo Nuevo, were also printing and publishing books either in their pages or as separate hard bound publications. Most of these Hispanic printer-publishers were rather short-lived, but eventually two enterprises appeared with strong-enough financial bases and business know-how to last for decades and provide some of the most important books by Hispanics in the nineteenth century: the houses of Cubans N?stor Ponce de Le?n and Enrique Trujillo. The longest-lasting in the hemisphere was that of Spain's Carib independence movement bean colonies, Cuba and Puerto Rico, and much of their independence struggle was to be plotted, funded and written about from U.S. shores. One of Cuba's first and most illustrious exiles was the F?lix V?rela, who founded El Habanero newspaper in Philadelphia in 1824 philosopher-priest and moved it toNew York in 1825. Subtitled "political, scientific and literary paper," El Haba nero openly militated for Cuban independence from Spain. V?rela set the precedent for Cubans and Puerto Ricans of printing and publishing in exile and having their works circulating in their home islands. V?rela was also among the expatriates who were actively translating works on liberalism and government organization, as in his 1826 translation and annotation of Jefferson's Manual de pr?ctica parlamentaria: para el uso del Senado de los Estados Unidos. V?rela' s own writings on philosophy and education, most of which were published in the United States,2 were said to be the only "best-sellers" inCuba, with V?rela himself themost popu lar there, despite the existence of a "conspiracy of silence" inwhich his name could never even be brought up in public on the island (Fornet 73-74). That V?rela would launch El Habanero and American Thomas other Cubans and Puerto Ricans would continue the exile press inNew York, Philadelphia, New Orleans, Key West and Tampa is remarkable, given the scant tradition of newspaper publishing on these islands under Spanish government control and censorship.3 Licenses to publish in the Spanish colonies had to be obtained directly from the Spanish crown, and materials were subject to review and censorship by both state and religious authorities. As the tide of revolutionary fervor rose inCuba and Puerto Rico, so too did censorship, repression and persecution of the press, with the intellectuals of both islands often suffering imprisonment, exile and/or worse: death by garroting.4 This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Thu, 14 Jan 2016 23:58:34 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Publishing in Nineteenth-Century United States 689 For the most part, the expatriate journalists and writers founded and wrote for Spanish newspapers were bilingual because politically-oriented language or bilingual periodicals?some public opinion and U.S. government policy they aspired to influencing Anglo-American regarding Cuba and Puerto Rico. Very few of the exiled intellectuals found work in the English language press, except as translators. One notable exception was Miguel Teurbe Tol?n, who in the 1850s worked as an editor for Latin America on the New York Herald (Montes-Huidobro 134-^16). Teurbe Tol?n also published poems and commentary in both Spanish- and English and translated Thomas Paine's Common Sense and Emma Willard's language periodicals, believes Teurbe Tol?n was among History of the United States into Spanish. Montes-Huidobro themost important pioneers of Hispanic journalism in theUnited States (Montes-Huidobro 135). But it is not only as a journalist that Teurbe Tol?n must be remembered: he is one of the founders of the literature of Hispanic exile, a constant theme inhis literary work, which figures prominently in the first anthology of exile literature ever published in theUnited States, El la?d del desterrado in Philadelphia a year after his death. Since the writings of V?rela and Teurbe (1856)?issued Tol?n and their colleagues, exile literature has been one of the continuing currents inHispanic letters and culture in the United States. The hefty legacy of the Cuban and Puerto Rican exile publishers and writers includes not only political tracts, but also books on pedagogy, natural sciences, technology and, of course, history. Some of themost important Cuban and Puerto Rican intellectuals were to follow V?rela's exam ple until the outbreak of the Spanish American War in 1898, publishing books and actively writing for newspapers: Jos? Mar?a Heredia, Jos? Antonio Saco, Cirilo Villaverde, Francisco "Pachin" Mar?n, Luis Mu?oz Rivera, Lola Rodr?guez de Ti? and, most importantly, Jos? Mart?. Puerto Rican intellectuals joined the expatriate Cubans in establishing revolutionary clubs In clubs such as Las Dos Antillas, co-founded by the Afro-Puerto and supporting publications. Rican bibliographer Arturo Alfonso Schomberg, they delivered the eloquent speeches thatwould be printed in the newspapers that circulated throughout the exile communities and were smuggled back into Puerto Rico. Serving as an important convener of the group at her home inNew York was the thrice-exiled Do?a Lola Rodr?guez de Ti?,5 whose nationalistic verse not only appeared frequently in newspapers of the era but also became enshrined as the national anthem for Puerto Rico. But in addition to the illustrious philosophers, essayists and poets thatmade up this group of expatriate Puerto Ricans, there were two craftsmen whose work was essential to the cause of revolutionary journalism: typesetters Francisco Gonzalo "Pach?n" Mar?n and Sotero Figueroa. In 1889, Mar?n brought his revolutionary newspaper El Postill?n toNew York from Puerto Rico, where ithad been suppressed by the Spanish authorities. In the print shop he set up inNew York, Mar?n published his paper, as well as books and broadsides for the Cuban and Puerto Rican expatriate community. His shop became ameeting place for intellectuals, literary figures and po litical leaders. A poet in his own right, inNew York he published two volumes of his own verse that are foundational for Puerto Rican letters: Romances and En la arena.6 Sotero Figueroa was the president of the Club Borinquen and owner of another print shop, Imprenta Am?rica, which provided the composition and printing for various revolutionary newspapers and other publica tions, including Borinquen, a bimonthly newspaper issued by the Puerto Rican section of the Cuban Revolutionary Party (Fitzpatrick 304). But more importantly, Figueroa worked closely with Jos? Mart? on both his political organizing (Figueroa was the board secretary for the Cuban Revolutionary Party) and his publishing projects; Figueroa provided the printing for one of the most important organs of the revolutionary movement, New York's Patria, founded by Mart? as the official organ of the Cuban Revolutionary Party (Fornet 178). In addition, Imprenta Am?rica probably prepared the books and pamphlets thatwere issued fox Patria's own publishing house, arm of El Porvernir, which issued, be Ediciones as La Patria, as well as for the book-publishing "7 ginning in 1890, themonumental five-volume biographical dictionary, Album de (ElPorvenir, thatmemorialized the expatriate community and provided it a firm sense of historical mission and national identity. N?stor Ponce de Le?n, the Havana editor and literary figure8 who was forced into exile in This content downloaded from 184.108.40.206 on Thu, 14 Jan 2016 23:58:34 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 690 Hispania 88 December 2005 1869, promptly founded a press inNew York and co-authored (with Jos? Ignacio Rodr?guez) and published in English The Book of Blood, an Authentical Record of Policy Adopted byModern Spain to Put an End to the War for the Independence of Cuba, documenting Spanish barbaric treatment of Cubans in order to influence the U.S. government to intervene against Spain. By the Ponce's press was publishing a wide variety of books in Spanish, not just political mid-1870s, tracts: technological dictionaries, histories of Cuba, biographies, medical and legal books, novels and books of poetry as well as translations of Moore, Byron and Heine effected by Antonio and Francisco Sellen, among others. In fact, Ponce was the principal publisher of themost celebrated Cuban poet of the time, the exiled Jos? Mar?a Heredia, who has since been canonized as one of the greatest poets of the entire Hispanic world. Ponce also printed Spanish-language periodicals, including El Educador Popular, and was proprietor of themost important Hispanic bookstore in theNortheast. Ponce's colleague and fellow publisher, Enrique Trujillo stated, "There is no place on earth where Spanish is spoken that the name of N?stor Ponce de Le?n is not known," such was his fame as a publisher (Trujillo, Apuntes 32). Trujillo further stated that Ponce's own non-fiction writing, represented by his Diccionario tecnol?gico and his two books on Christopher Columbus, published in 1892, were the best studies and reference works to be had in the Spanish language on those subjects. In 1887, along with Jos? Mart? and Colombian immigrant Santiago P?rez Tria de Nueva na, Ponce founded the influential literary club, Sociedad Literaria Hispano-Americana York that brought together all Hispanic literature enthusiasts and writers from throughout the city, except for the Spaniards, who were seen as the enemy (Trujillo, Apuntes 52); this club was sep clubs that were organized to raise funds for and promote the revolution. the many literary societies formed by Hispanics from the late nineteenth century to the present, the Sociedad Literaria was the forum where literary works would be read and discussed, speeches would be made and authors visiting the city would be received and celebrated. Enrique Trujillo, on the other hand, was principally a newspaperman who was deported to New York in 1880 in retaliation for his revolutionary activities. After working on various revolu arate from the political Like (1889) inNew York, in tionary newspapers and having edited El Avisador Hispano-Americano 1890 Trujillo founded what became an immensely influential newspaper, El Porvenir, which was printed in his own shop (Trujillo, Apuntes 42). Through the imprint of El Porvenir, he also pub lished a variety of books similar in breadth to Ponce de Leon's catalog. While Trujillo was an accomplished publisher of the exiled intelligentsia, he was also an avid pamphleteer, penning numerous ideological tracts to sustain the Cuban independence movement?in reality, he was an adversary of Jos? Mart?'s revolutionary party and his pamphlets attacked the ideas issuing forth inMart? 's periodical, Patria. As mentioned above, Trujillo also participated in laying the intellec tual foundations for a Cuban national culture by publishing his biographical magazine, Album del Porvenir, in addition, he wrote and in 1896 published Apuntes hist?ricos, which documented the effort of the expatriate community in the struggle for independence leading up to the Spanish American War. There were many other publications that indicate that the exiled Cubans were building a sense of nation for their people. One of the most important of these was the compiling of an ex tensive biographical dictionary, Diccionario biogr?fico cubano, by Francisco Calcagno, and N?stor Ponce de Le?n in 1878. The 728-page text in New York in in part by printer published a was of information about accomplished Cubans (as storehouse veritable eight-point type to Spaniards) of these Cubans resided in exile. The in all fields of endeavor?many and efforts of creative writers who were actively re the newspapermen dictionary complemented their and its nation's colonial independent future (Fornet 70). Writers history plotting writing were not only attacking Spaniards in their prose and poetry, but also laying down amythic and ideological background on which to construct their nation's culture. For example, Francisco opposed Sellen, a journalist, poet and translator, did precisely this in his published play, Hatuey, which identified Cubans with the island's indigenous past in the form of the last indigenous rebel chief while glossing Las Casas's documentation of Spanish inhumanity during the Conquest (Salas 208-215). This content downloaded from 220.127.116.11 on Thu, 14 Jan 2016 23:58:34 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Publishing to the four Thanks printer-publishers in Nineteenth-Century mentioned above, as well United as various States 691 others as A. such da Costa G?mez, M.M. Hern?ndez, R. De Requenes, Modesto A. Tirado and Viuda de Barcina, hundreds of books and pamphlets were issued inNew York and distributed openly to expatriate communities throughout theUnited States and at least ten Spanish-American republics, as well as Cuba and Puerto Rico. Within the four years preceding the Spanish American War, some eighty titles on Cuba alone poured forth from the exile press, located mainly inNew York, but also to Fornet represented in Tampa, Key West, Philadelphia and abroad (Fornet 183). According (183), some of these titles were issued in printings of five and ten thousand copies. When this voluminous outpouring is added to the hundreds of thousands of pages of periodicals produced by the expatriates, as well as the hundreds of books on diverse subjects thatwere published, one can form a better judgment of not only the passion and intensity of the literate discourse, but also of the commitment to the printed word in these communities. Exiles and political refugees have continued tomake up an important segment of Hispanic immigrants to theUnited States. With the Cuban Revolution and the United States fighting much of the Cold War through involvement in the civil wars inCentral America and Chile, large-scale immigration of political refugees has continued to the present day. Beginning in 1959, a new wave exile press as well as a more of refugees from the Cuban Revolution established a wide-spread and other informal network of hundreds of newsletters. Chileans, Salvadorans, Nicaraguans recent and in have all issued years. political newspapers magazines expatriates Spanish-American to be one-third of As the Hispanic population of the United States continues to grow?estimated as the economy of the United States becomes more the total U.S. population by 2030?and integrated with those south of the border through such agreements as the North American Free Trade Agreement, United States culture will become even more directly linked to the internal republics. The culture of Hispanic exile will continue to be part politics of the Spanish-American of the overall culture of the United States into the foreseeable future; the United States will continue to be a preferred base from which political refugees will use the press and, today, the electronic media?as exemplified by Radio Mart? and the Internet?to express their opposition to governments in their homelands. NOTES liberalism to Spanish America during the 'Among the books printed in Philadelphia meant for export of American decade of the nineteenth of Thomas Jefferson and John century were translations of the U.S. Constitution, of the founding fathers, of speeches by Daniel Webster, Edward Everett and other Quincy Adams, of the biographies thinkers. These were accompanied and even editions of Bartolom? de las by attacks on Spanish despotism political second books detailing Spanish atrocities visited on the Amerindians during the periods of conquest and colonization, in order to further sustain the moral right for independence of the Spanish American colonies. 2See Lecciones de filosof?a 1824), Miscel?nea (New York: H. (Philadelphia: Stavely and Bringhurst, filos?fica con la sociedad en sus relaciones sobre la impiedad, la superstici?n y el fanatismo Newton, 1827), Cartas a Elpidio, Casas's (New York: William Newell, 3Cuba's first newspaper, 1835) and the attributed novel Jicot?ncal 1826). (Philadelphia: G. Stavely, was founded inHavana in 1790?the El Papel Peri?dico first book ever printed in Cuba had appeared a scant twenty-nine years earlier (Fornet 12,36)?and Puerto Rico's first newspaper, La Gaceta de Puerto Rico, did not appear until 1806, the same year as the introduction of the printing press to the island. In the world of literature and journalism, the creative and publishing activity of Cubans and Puerto Ricans overseas often rivaled the at home, and many of the leading writers and intellectuals of both islands produced substantial corpuses of in the freedom of exile on foreign shores rather than in the repressive environment of Spanish colonial rule. 4Such was the fate suffered by Eduardo Facciolo for clandestinely the revolutionary newspaper La Voz publishing productivity their works del Pueblo in 1852. The interesting story of how Facciolo Cubano transported and hid his press from the authorities and discovered is related by Fornet, 32-34. Juan Clemente Zenea, another journalist and literary figure ultimately associated with La Voz del Pueblo Cubano who went into exile in New York to escape persecution, continued his there and, on returning to Cuba with a Spanish government newspaper revolutionary pass journalism for La Revoluci?n was to conduct Huidobro, interviews of political figures, was arrested and executed by a Spanish firing squad in 1871. See Montes 163. 5Rodr?guez de Ti? arrived inNew York in 1895 and left in 1899, the third of her exiles; the first and second were inVenezuela and Cuba (1889-95). After the Spanish American War, Rodr?guez de Ti? spent out the rest of (1877-80) her life in a quasi-independent Cuba, preferring not to live in Puerto Rico, which had become a colony of the United States. See Rosario, 393-95. This content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Thu, 14 Jan 2016 23:58:34 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 692 88 December Hispania 2005 for an evaluation 6See Bab?n, 329-33, 7 See Trujillo, Album de "El Porvenir. of his poetry. Also Rodriguez, 445-85. " 1-5. New York: Imprenta de "El Porvenir," Vols. 1890. 8According to Trujillo, Apuntes, 32, in 1853, he had founded and edited the literary periodical Las Brisas de Cuba and had published the poetry collection Joyas del Parnaso cubano; in 1868, he founded Revista Cr?tica de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes. In Havana, Nestor Ponce de Le?n had edited the important newspaper La Verdad during a brief period of free press on the island in 1869. WORKS CITED de la cultura puertorrique?a. New York: Las Americas, 1958. cubano. New York: Imprenta y Librer?a de N. Ponce de Le?n, 1878. biogr?fico in the United States: An Historical and Analysis Fitzpatrick, Joseph P. "The Puerto Rican Press." The Ethnic Press CT: Greenwood Ed. Sally M. Miller. Westport, Handbook. P, 1987. 303-14. Bab?n, Mar?a Teresa. Panorama Francisco. Diccionario Calcagno, 1994. El libro en Cuba. Havana: Editorial Letras Cubanas, Fornet, Ambrosio. Houston: Arte P?blico P, 1995. ed. El la?d del desterrado. Montes-Huidobro, Matias, in the Cuban Communities Poyo, Gerald E. With All, and for the Good of All. The Emergence of Popular Nationalism Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1989. of the United States, 1848-1898. Primer seminario Emilio Jorge. "Apuntes sobre la visi?n del emigrante en la narrativa puertorrique?a." Rodr?guez, de las comunidades negra, chicana, 1984. 445-85. Pol?tica, de D?az and Edgar Mart?nez Rosario, Rub?n del, Esther Mel?n 1976. que?a. San Juan: Editorial Cordillera, sobre Havana: Salas, Marcela la situaci?n cubana, india y puertorrique?a Masdeu. Breve en Estados W. "El exilio Literary Heritage. 2000. 203-17. Vol. enciclopedia de la cultura puertorri the U S. Hispanic cubano del siglo XIX: La leyenda negra y la figura del indio." Recovering III. Eds. Maria Herrera-Sobek S?nchez Korrol. Houston: Arte P?blico P, and Virginia " 1-5. New York: Imprenta de "El Porvenir," Vols. 1890. Trujillo, E. Album de "El Porvenir. ?. 1896. Apuntes hist?ricos. New York: Imprenta de "El Porvenir," en sus relaciones sobre la impiedad, la superstici?n y el fanatismo V?rela, F?lix. Cartas a Elpidio, 1835. New York: William Newell, ?.Jicot?ncal. ?. Lecciones ?. Miscel?nea Unidos. Editora 1826. G. Stavely, Philadelphia: de filosofa. Stavely Philadelphia: New York: H. Newton, filos?fica. and Bringhurst, 1827. 1824. This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Thu, 14 Jan 2016 23:58:34 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions con la sociedad.